Basic Git commands

Commiting changes

git add file1    # add file1 to soon-to-come commit
git add file2    # add file2 also
git commit -m "Update file1 and file2"

git add file*    # add all files starting with `file`

# Add all changed files and commit, does not include new files
git commit -a -m "Your commit message"

git status       # display the list of changed / added files

# Add all files including new ones, then commit
git add . && git commit -m "Your commit message"

git commit -a     # No -m option will open up a text editor

git add -p file1  # Add hunks of file1 in interactive mode

Time flexibility : reset, checkout, amend, revert and stash

# reset the git history to the previous commit while
# keeping the changes to files, and keeping them added
git reset --soft HEAD~1

# same but changes are not added here
git reset --mixed HEAD~1

# changes are all cancelled /!\ DANGER /!\
git reset --hard HEAD~1

git reset --soft HEAD~n  # soft reset to the n-th commit backwards

# withdraw file1 from the list of files included in the commit to come
git reset HEAD file1

# cancel uncommited changes to file1
git checkout -- file1
git checkout -- .   # cancel all uncommited changes

git commit --amend  # rewrite the last commit

# revert previous commit
git revert HEAD~1

# revert last three commits
git revert HEAD~3..HEAD

# revert specific commit
git revert 34abe9

git stash           # stash your changes to store them temporarily
git stash pop       # apply the stashed changes to start over from there

Branches basics

Create and navigate

# create a new branch with name mybranch
git branch mybranch

# move to (checkout) that branch
git checkout mybranch

# create the branch then checkout
git checkout -b mybranch

# list branches
git branch         # local branches only
git branch --all   # include remote branches


All the following merges are to be made while being checkout out at the receiving branch.

# default merge instruction, fast-forward if possible, other wise
# merge commit
git merge mybranch

# fast forward only (will abandon if not possible)
git merge mybranch --ff-only

# no fast-forward, which means a merge commit
git merge mybranch --no-ff

# squash merge – not to use in general
git merge mybranch --squash


# ping the remote to list all changes available
git fetch --all

# pull the changes available (fast-forward if possible) for the current branch
git pull

# push the local commits to the remote branch
git push